Data are prepared with SPSS, LISREL, and STATGRAPHICS for data evaluation. For the comparison of male attitude toward cosmetic products intake of both nationwide countries, we use descriptive statistics and t-tests. 0.039). Pakistani male consumers have a higher score (3.657) in attitude toward usage of cosmetic products than Chinese male consumers (3.519). Table 1 also shows the score of variables Age, HC, LS, and PS are significantly different among two samples. Meanwhile, the score of SI, PhA, SB, and Ad do not have any factors among Chinese and Pakistani consumers. To measure the impact of latent variables on the male’s grooming product consumption, we decide to run the regression analysis.
As industry analysis implies that Chinese and Pakistani marketplaces are at different levels of lifecycle and sample is also different in profile. Multicollinearity means the high significant relationship among the independent variables. Because of multicollinearity, beta coefficients of independent variables change dramatically by little change in the model. To check multicollinearity inside our data, we use two tests, tolerance, and VIF (Variance Inflation Factor).
- John the Baptist (4)
- BEAUTYPEDIA (link)
- Cheek Palettes
- Nappy rashes
- Select selection of products that work
- Illness or stress
- 2 tsp vegetable glycerin – Vegetable Glycerin
- Muscles and fine lines can steady in two hours
Neter, Kutner, Nachtsheim, & Wasserman, 1996 Neter, J., Kutner, M. H., Nachtsheim, C. J., & Wasserman, W. (1996). Applied linear statistical models (Vol. Moreover, we also use condition index test to check on the dependency degree of our variables. All VIF and tolerance beliefs of our model fall within the acceptable range mean a low level of collinearity.
For this issue, we use ridge regression as a treatment (Hair et al., 1998 Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & William, C. (1998). Black (1998), Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Mahajan, Jain, & Bergier, 1977 Mahajan, V., Jain, A. K., & Berger, M. (1977). Parameter estimation in marketing models in the existence of multicollinearity: A credit card application of ridge regression. This treatment solves our relationship problem and also enhances the accuracy of the estimations. The Durbin-Watson (DW) statistic test can be used to check on the significant autocorrelation or serial correlation in the data.
0.000). It shows self-image impacts on male consumer’s purchasing attitude toward grooming products in both national countries. This conclusion strongly supports our first hypothesis H1 for both China and Pakistan. Second explanatory variable Age is also statistically highly significant in both Chinese (2.734, 0.006), and Pakistani (4.063, 0.000) consumer instances. This conclusion facilitates the argument that men preferred to be young and use the grooming products for his or her maturing concerns about the appearance that expresses the men’s desire to hold promptly.
Schouten, 1991 Schouten, J. W. (1991). Identity reconstruction. Our result supports the next hypothesis H2 for both Pakistan and China. Physical attractiveness shows the insignificant result (1.429, 0.157) for Chinese consumers, while it indicates a marginally significant result (1.838, 0.069) for Pakistani consumer. The result shows that physical attractiveness is considered by Pakistani male customers while purchasing aesthetic products but Chinese consumers do not consider it while buying grooming products. Turner, 2008 Turner, B. S. (2008). The body and society: Explorations in sociable theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Our result facilitates the 3rd hypothesis H3 for Pakistani consumers but opposes the Chinese consumers. Health care is statistically highly significant latent adjustable showing the significant positive impact on men’s attitude toward intake of grooming products (4.039, 0.000 and 2.649, 0.008 Pakistan and China respectively). The result supports hypothesis H4. Results of the current study sustain the finding of Souiden and Diagne (2009 Souiden, N., & Diagne, M. (2009). Canadian and French men’s intake of makeup products: an assessment of their behavior and motivations.
According to them, lots of the customers use grooming products as they are implying they are inquisitive to hygiene psychologically, healthiness, and beauty. Males buying for personal care products are increasing in numbers because of health awareness. This result facilitates hypothesis H5 and keeps the findings of a previous study (Featherstone, 2007 Featherstone, M. (2007). Consumer culture and postmodernism. LA, CA: Sage. According to him, consumers show themselves socially accountable by adopting discipline for his or her body which is considered appropriate by culture.